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Archive - Jan 20, 2020

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Breakthrough Genetic Engineering Targets All Four Types of Dengue Virus for First Time, Offers Hope of Reducing Dengue Infection, Which Currently Occurs in More Than 390 Million People Every Year, with Related Annual Health Costs of $40 Billion

Scientists from Australia's national science agency, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), and the University of California San Diego have engineered the first breed of genetically modified mosquitoes resistant to spreading all four types of the dengue virus. Dengue infects more than 390 million people every year. Typical symptoms include severe fever, headaches, and muscle aches, with severe forms of the disease leading to hemorrhage, shock and even death. CSIRO Senior Research Scientist Dr. Prasad Paradkar said the dengue virus was causing an epidemic in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, with large outbreaks currently occurring in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines. "There is a pressing global demand for effective strategies to control the mosquitoes that spread the dengue virus, as there are currently no known treatments and the vaccine that is available is only partially effective," Dr Paradkar said. "In this study, we used recent advances in genetic engineering technologies to successfully genetically modify a mosquito, the Aedes aegypti (photo), with reduced ability to acquire and transmit the dengue virus. "This is the first engineered approach that targets all four dengue types, which is crucial for effective disease suppression. Mosquito-transmitted viruses are expected to climb over the coming years, which is why CSIRO is focused on developing new ways to help solve this global challenge." There have been previous attempts to synthetically engineer dengue-carrying mosquito populations to make them resistant to the virus, however these approaches had limited success due to their ability to only target one or two of the four major dengue types.

Sepsis Associated with 1 In 5 Deaths Globally, Double Previous Estimate; Study Includes Sharper Focus on Low-Income & Middle-Income Countries

Twice as many people as previously believed are dying of sepsis worldwide, according to an analysis published in the January 18, 2020 issue of The Lancet and announced at the Critical Care Reviews annual meeting in Belfast, Ireland (https://healthmanagement.org/c/icu/event/critical-care-reviews-meeting-2020). The Lancet open-access article is titled “Global, Regional, and National Sepsis Incidence and Mortality, 1990–2017: Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.” Among those dying are a disproportionately high number of children in poor areas. Led by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh (Pitt) and University of Washington schools of medicine, the study revealed 48.9 million global cases of sepsis in 2017 and 11 million deaths, representing 1 in 5 deaths worldwide. Sepsis occurs when a person's organs cease to function properly as the result of an out-of-control immune response to infection. Even if sepsis doesn't kill its victims, it can create lifelong disabilities in survivors. The large majority of sepsis cases -- 85% in 2017 -- occurred in low- or middle-income countries. The highest burden was found in sub-Saharan Africa, the South Pacific islands near Australia, and South, East, and Southeast Asia. Sepsis incidence was higher among females than males. By age, the incidence of sepsis peaks in early childhood, with more than 40% of all cases occurring in children under 5. "I've worked in rural Uganda, and sepsis is what we saw every single day. Watching a baby die of a disease that could have been prevented with basic public health measures really sticks with you," said lead author Kristina E. Rudd, MD, MPH, Assistant Professor in Pitt's Department of Critical Care Medicine. "I want to contribute to solving this tragedy, so I participate in research on sepsis.